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1998

1997


Abstracts fra IFOAM-konferencen i Argentina 1998

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Auther: Stud. Ph.D. Anders Borgen

Institution: Royal Vet.- and Agricultural University. Departement of Agricultural Sciences. Section for Agroecology. Agrovej 10, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Titel: Designing standards based on the fundamental principles of ecological plant protection

Abstract: In ecological agriculture, diseases, pests, weeds and the like is not considered as problems in themselves. More are they symptoms of more fundamental problems like unnatural cropping systems. The focus in ecological plant protection should therefor not be on the elimination of pests, but on the prevention in terms of systems design. However, based on lack of knowledge and practical capability, problems do occur. Therefore some direct treatments are included in the IFOAM standards, and other regulations of ecological agriculture.

The ban on pesticides (and artificial fertilisers) in ecological agriculture has changed focus in direction of systems design. But the reason for this is by part, that knowledge about alternative treatments are limited. As time goes by, more research is done in the field of alternative treatments, and this tends to be the trend in ecological research programmes. These new technics will improve the farmers capability to control pests, diseases and weeds by direct treatments and thereby reduce the focus on systems design.

In future, the standard development must therefor either start limiting the use of some agronomic technics like mechanical weed control, as our knowledge of preventive measures increases; or the use of bans in the organic standards should be substituted by other regulation measures like some kinds of taxes that put a pressure on the farmer to solve the problems by means of more fundamental sound solutions.





Auther: Stud. Ph.D. Anders Borgen

Institution: Royal Vet.- and Agricultural University. Departement of Agricultural Sciences. Section for Agroecology. Agrovej 10, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Titel: Research in organic agriculture - contribution to the illumination of the anatomy of scientific reductionism

The reductionism in the natural sciences has often been criticised for being unfit to the holistic approach in organic agriculture. On the other hand, natural science has a high priority in the organic movements as seen at the IFOAM scientific conferences. The object of this study is to analyse the nature of scientific reductionism and to compare it with the holism in the ecological epistemiology.

The methods in the natural sciences is well fit to solve well defined problems; the problem related to reductionism arises, when the experimental results are generalised in the conclusion. Because the conclusion does not cover the externalities created by the premises.

To wield the externalities in the scientific work, other research methods (experimental design) are not required. Only the acceptance of the fact, that externalities are created and the proviso for this in the conclusion is needed.









Auther: Stud. Ph.D. Anders Borgen

Institution: Royal Vet.- and Agricultural University. Departement of Agricultural Sciences. Section for Agroecology. Agrovej 10, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Titel: Seed treatments in control of common bunt in ecological agriculture

Abstract: In the absence of pesticides, common bunt (Tilletia tritici) is one of the most potent plant diseases in wheat production.

6 years field trials with seed treatments shows that common bunt can be controlled within the standards of IFOAM. An integrated strategy including resistant varieties or physical cleaning in combination with seed treatment with acetic acid or mustard flour are the cheapest measures, but the traditional hot water treatments and milk powder coating can be used as well. In future, biological control with bacteria and fungi will be commercial available and new technology in the heat treatment can make this treatment competitive.